VoteIn addition to being a huge source of interest, amusement, annoying commercials, robo-calls, and anguish to all of us in the US, the 2016 election cycle is likely to drive cybercriminal and hacktivist activity. The Forcepoint 2016 Cybersecurity Predictions Report describes some interesting possibilities.

As an individual, expect to be targeted. By the 2012 election cycle, social media was an important method of getting a candidate’s message out, gauging voter interest, collecting donations, and promoting engagement hopefully leading to a vote. For some candidates, social media is at least as important as the traditional new media. Attackers will use the intense interest in this election cycle to create highly effective email lures and misdirects to push malware to the unsuspecting public.

Some of these attacks will be advanced cyber attacks against specific organizations unrelated to the election, potentially including your company. The cybercriminals will target individuals pursuing election-related information, with the expectation that the cybercriminals can gain access to personal or company information for financial gain or negative business impact unrelated to the election.

The candidates themselves, as well as the news media, will become vulnerable to attacks on their social media sites. These attacks may be by opponents, foreign governments, or hacktivists with a specific political agenda. Expect to see these attacks used to spread inaccurate messages and information. Even if a candidate can quickly correct the information, the false information lives forever and may impact the outcome of an election. In the US political circus, the message is critical.

These attacks on a candidate’s social media could also impact the data the candidate is collecting on probable voters and donations. Corrupting that data could have a huge negative impact on a candidate’s ability to run or fund a campaign.

InfoSec Institute published “Which Top 5 Presidential Candidate is Most Likely to Be Hacked?” back in October, 2015. The only candidate with an “A” rating was Ben Carson (remember him?), largely because he outsources donation and volunteer services and does not have an on-line store; he has a very small attack server. Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump got a “B,” Bernie Sanders and Jeb Bush got a “C.” Several of these candidates are using unsecured or only partially secured WordPress sites that may leak internal usernames and other information, making them relatively easy targets. While she did get a “B,” Hillary has the largest attack surface based on a quickly built custom application. Her development team’s motto is “ship early and often; done is always better than perfect.” Security may not be high on the team’s priority list, and security testing is likely to be a low priority task.

As the Forcepoint report points out, “Technology decisions made by candidates during their tenure can expose them to data theft attacks (as seen by Clinton’s use of a private email server).” It is also likely true that technology decision made during a campaign may give a hint as to how that candidate will behave relative to data security when elected. If you see a candidate reacting to incorrect information on their web site or social media, then expect that their concern about data security is very low. Put that on your scorecard as one factor as you decide how you will vote.

It will not be just the candidates’ web sites and social media sites, but also those of the hundreds of issue-related websites that represent PACs and other special interest groups.

The bottom line is that you need to be very careful. Before you click on a link in an email or on a website, carefully look at it. Even if you know the sender of an email, if all it says is something like “check this out” or some other short message, be careful: the email may only appear to be from a friend or co-worker. The safest way is to copy the link (right-click on the link and select “Copy Link Location”) and then paste that into your browser’s URL line and make sure you recognize the web site.

The last word:

SEAIf you think it unlikely that a foreign government would attack a candidate, consider the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), a group of attackers supporting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Beginning in 2011, the SEA targeted political opposition groups within Syria, western news organizations (including the BBC, Associated Press, and The Washington Post) and human rights groups. The SEA has managed to send false tweets from Twitter accounts for 60 Minutes, Reuters, Associated Press, ITV News London, and many others. It has defaced the web sites of Forbes, NBC, CBC News, and hundreds of other sites including the National Hockey League.

Of course, the SEA is only one potential government sponsored hacktivist organization, and in my view, not the most dangerous by far. There is a reason why the US and China agreed to a pact to not use cyberattacks to steal company records for financial gain. Of course, China does not admit to ever having done anything like that. A careful reading of the pact indicates that the pact does not bar cyberattacks for other reasons such as political.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.


Now I’m a Politician

I got hold of a sample ballot for our November 2015 General Election, and noted that there was no candidate for the position of “Auditor.” Sounds like an important and necessary job, so I launched a massive write-in campaign and began my run: I asked my wife to also write in my name. A couple of week’s later I received a call from the County Board of Elections that I had tied with another candidate, and there would be a drawing to see who won. I could come myself, send someone in my place, or ask one of the election board staff to draw for me. Since I would be traveling that day, I asked that someone there draw for me. On a picturesque fall day just before Thanksgiving, we are driving across I-70 in Ohio and my phone rings again. I had won!

auditelectionWhen I got back home, I decided that I had better find out what I won, and what the duties and responsibilities of the position entailed. I figured that there was not much power to the position, since neither party had bothered to propose a candidate. After some research, I determined that I had won a six-year term on the three-person Board of Auditors for the township where we live in. A quick visit to the township office revealed two things: they did not yet know that I had won, and, since there was no candidate on the ballot, they were not actually expecting that anyone had won. But most importantly, I found out that I should attend the Township Supervisors Organizational meeting in early January, and a separate Board of Auditors meeting the next evening.

There are relatively few required duties for this board. For example, if the township hires a Supervisor as an employee, it is the Board of Auditors that officially sets the salary. But the Board of Auditors can actually do the annual audit. For at least the past few years, the Township has hired a private firm to do the audit. We’ll see if that changes.

The last word:

The township covers 18.2 square miles, with a population of 21,219 people according to the 2010 census, up 38% from the 2000 census.

One thing this exercise shows, probably not to your surprise, is the lack of interest in local elections. There are 13,810 registered voters, probably a very high percentage of the eligible citizens. Only 28% actually voted in this election, with a little less than 1% by absentee ballot. For this auditor position, there were only 26 votes, and I won with 2 of them. Three votes would have won the position without the risk of a run-off drawing. The open Supervisor position was won by less than 160 votes, about 4% of the votes, but only a little over 1% of the registered voters. Township and County supervisors have a strong influence over our daily lives. If you want to take over a local government, all you may need to do is get a hundred or so people who do not normally vote to go out and vote the way you want.

All politics is local.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.


The Future of Cash

Cash is a pain. If you are a retailer, you have to go to the bank and get change every business day, count the cash drawer at every teller change and at the end of the day, and secure the cash until you get it back to the bank. In the meantime, you have to be concerned about it being stolen, or accepting counterfeit bills. After all, if you accept a counterfeit bill, you have lost that money.

Paper money does need to be laundered: it is filthy. A 2002 report found pathogens on 94% of the dollar bills tested, and paper money can and will transfer disease from a previous handler to you. Paper money can transport a live flu virus for two weeks, and one report found that a majority of US bills are contaminated by cocaine, directly from the coke-covered hands of drug makers and traffickers, and further distributed by the rollers in ATMs. Restaurants should have signs saying “employees must wash hands after handling cash,” and it is a good rule for everyone.

If you are a government, you like cash even less. You have to design money that is hard to counterfeit, securely manufacture it, distribute it to the Federal Reserve banks and branches (in the US), and they have to release them to the commercial banking system. This is all very expensive. Then you have to have a large infrastructure to investigate and prevent counterfeiting; in the US that is the Secret Service. Just the process of deciding how much money to print is an expensive effort. Worse, cash is untraceable. The government does not know how much is really still in circulation, and can only monitor transactions that are done through a commercial bank, and currently the US only monitors transactions of $10,000 or more.

As an aside, the day that President Abraham Lincoln established the Secret Service, July 5, 1865, was the day that he was assassinated. Congress immediately began to think about adding Presidential Protection to the list of Secret Service duties, and after only two more Presidents were assassinated (Garfield in 1881 and McKinley in 1901) Congress did actually add that protection.

Think how much easier it would be to handle sales and income taxes if all transactions went through financial institutions. The taxes could be automatically taken at the time of the transaction. Tax filing would be a breeze; in fact you really would not need to file anything. The government would send you a summary of all of your contributions to its good works. A federal, state or local taxing authority could change tax rates at any time and have them take effect immediately. Tax evasion becomes much more difficult. Countries like Greece and Italy with huge tax evasion problems might consider this approach. Governments will like these improvements in their cash flow.

Sweden is moving quickly to a cash-free future. More than half of the branches of the country’s leading banks no longer accept or dispense cash. Banks are dismantling ATM’s by the hundreds.

While largely a bottom up phenomenon in this very tech-savvy country, the government is not at all trying to stem the trend or even slow it down. Nonetheless, the Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) predicts that some cash will still be circulating in 20 years. Cash now represents just 2% of Sweden’s economy, compared with almost 8% in the US and 10% in the Euro Zone. The amount of cash in Sweden’s bank vaults dropped from 8.7 billion kronor in 2010 to 3.6 billion kronor in 2014, a decline of over 60%.

KollektomatEven street beggars accept credit cards or SMS donations in Sweden. At a Filadelfia Stockholm church service, worshipers use cellphones to tithe through a Swedish bank app called Swish to a bank account projected on a huge screen, or line up at a Kollektomat card machine in the church. Last year, only 15% of their donations came in cash.

All of this only works with the Cloud, with all of the “works from anywhere at anytime” benefits and potential security issues.

However, there may be some bad side effects to this cashless society.

  • Older adults or others who are not tech savvy may be at a disadvantage, finding it difficult to ride public transportation or even buy newspapers or food.
  • When you can’t see the cash flowing out of your pocket, it is much easier to fall into a debt hole. It is a lot harder, I think, to pull a $100 bill out of your pocket then swipe a little piece of plastic or click a box on your smart phone.
  • Of course, the cybercriminals are paying attention. The number of financial cybercrime cases has more than doubled in the last ten years in Sweden.

But the biggest social change that will accompany the cash-less world will be in the rise of other forms of anonymous and non-traceable tradable items. Bitcoin is one such decentralized virtual currency, and identified as such by the US Treasury Department. Like most currencies, the value of a bitcoin can vary, but its value is not under the control of any government. Unlike regulated transactions, bitcoin transactions are not protected by any laws.

Some of the earliest adopters of bitcoin were criminals who found it a convenient and “safe” online marketplace for contraband. Allegedly ISIS is using bitcoin to help fund its activities.

The next step will be the expansion of “smart contracts.” A smart contract uses software to monitor and manage a contract, replacing third-party humans like lawyers, and allowing two parties that may not trust each other to have a contract that will “pay off” when and if something happens. This could be something as common as the transfer of real property, or criminal acts including cybercriminal activity or even physical acts including murder. Usually based around bitcoin, payment is anonymous and untraceable.

Criminals and law-abiding citizens will find ways to get around what they perceive as an overpowering or overly intrusive government.

The last word:

I wish you all a happy, peaceful and prosperous 2016. Remember that the world is fair; it just does not care about you.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.


As we are in the middle of the holiday season, our thoughts turn to 2016 and beyond. With so many really serious issues surrounding us, I decided to think about something fun: autonomous vehicles. After all, what could go wrong?

Police_stop_Google_carGoggle has been testing driverless cars for seven years, and one was finally pulled over by a policeman. On 12 November 2015 a policeman stopped a Google car in Mountain View, CA, for doing 24 mph in a 35 mph zone and impeding traffic. When the policeman noticed there was no one in the vehicle, he did not give the car a ticket. Two good things to note about this incident: The Google car knew what to do when pulled over by a policeman on the road, and the absence of a ticket leaves Goggle’s record intact: 1.2 million miles of autonomous driving and no ticket. That is the equivalent of about 90 years of driving experience.

When was the last time you got a ticket for driving too slowly? And as Google CEO Sergey Brin said in a 2012 interview, Google cars “do not run right lights.”

My predictions:

  • If you live in a metropolitan area, you will see an autonomous vehicle on a highway near you by 2020.
  • By 2025, a significant percentage of the long haul trucks you pass on the US Interstates will be autonomous vehicles, and by 2030 there will likely be only autonomous semi-trailer vehicles on the Interstates outside of metropolitan areas.
  • By 2025, large farms (1,000 or more farmed acres) will be exclusively using autonomous farm vehicles to grow crops like corn, wheat, and soybeans.
  • In 2030, London will be the first large city to completely ban non-autonomous vehicles within the City of London. And by 2040 within the entire metropolis of London. The City of London is the originally settled part of London, covering the area settled by the Romans in the first century AD through the Middle Ages. It is 1.2 square miles and includes most of the government and financial buildings. Metropolitan London includes 32 additional boroughs and covers over 3,000 square miles.
  • By 2025, we will see the first citywide Transportation as a Service These companies, possibly government run, will provide a variety of vehicles to move people and goods about the city on demand, integrated to the existing public transportation system. Expect to see them first in Detroit (sponsored by Ford), San Francisco (Google), and Seattle (Microsoft). We are seeing the first baby-steps towards this with Uber. Uber establishes the model of a mobile-app service that will take you when and where you want. The next step is to eliminate the driver.
  • By 2040, hardly anyone within a metropolitan area will own a car. Parking lots will start to be replaced by parks or a more campus-like environment for work, living, and shopping

Some neat things you will be able to do:

  • You will get limousine-like service going to and coming from the airport, and never have to worry about what is happening to your car while you are traveling, or even which lot you might have put you car. Same with shopping centers.
  • If you own an autonomous vehicle, you never have to take it in for service. Just send it on its own.
  • You can go shopping, summon a car and load it up, send it home, and then stroll around with a friend and get a cup of coffee. Summon another car to take you home where the first car is patiently waiting at your front door.
  • When you arrive at a strange city for a business meeting, you won’t have to worry about how to get to your destination. Just pick up an autonomous car at the airport or train station, tell it where to go, and even keep it for the entire trip. It will even be able to give you a quick tour of the town, or take you to some specific spot you have always wanted to see, or recommend a restaurant.
  • Older and disabled individuals will have all the mobility and freedom they want to maintain their lifestyle.
  • You will never worry about you, your teenager, or someone else driving drunk or otherwise impaired.

Autonomous cars will be able to react much faster than you can. I had an uncle who lived in rural, western Pennsylvania who always advised us “kids” to never hit a deer. Followed by, never leave the road or your lane to avoid hitting a deer. He further explained that if you cannot avoid hitting a deer, accelerate; do not apply the brakes. Why? When you brake hard, the front of your car drops, potentially lowering the front bumper by several inches. This increases the probability that the deer will be thrown up over your hood. If it comes at you feet first it will go through the windshield and likely cause substantial injury or death to you or your front seat passenger. If you accelerate, the front of the car rises, increases the probability that the deer will go under the car. In either case, it is bad for the deer and your car, but the likelihood you will walk away is increased if you accelerate. The trick is to get over the “there’s a deer” startle, then decide whether you can avoid the collision and take the correct action in about a second. An autonomous car will figure it all out in about a tenth of a second. An autonomous car is more likely to correctly react to a change in road conditions such as black ice or a suddenly flat tire. For one thing, it will never have to have a startled reaction before actually doing something.

In addition, every autonomous car will keep a record of its actions and where it went. Like the black boxes on airplanes and trains, this information will be useful when there are accidents to figure out what happened and if programming changes might be needed. This information will also be available to the government in case they want to know where the car has been.

Your car might also tattle on you. A Florida woman was reportedly arrested after her Ford implicated her in at least one alleged hit-and-run incident. The car driven by 57-year old Cathy Bernstein automatically dialed 911 to report a crash. The call is part of the car’s safety package, notifying first responders to help locate the driver or passengers who might have lost consciousness in the crash. The 911 call enabled police to locate the car without talking with anyone. Ms. Bernstein denied that there had been any accident. Ford said its software worked as designed.

Whether my predictions are correct or not will be determined over time, but autonomous vehicles are coming.

The last word:

“A strict observance of the written laws is doubtless one of the high virtues of a good citizen, but it is not the highest. The laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger, are of higher obligation.”

Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States, in a letter to John B. Colvin, 20 September 1810. John Colvin was a newspaper publisher in the Baltimore-Washington area who supported Thomas Jefferson.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.


Office 365

I am not a fan of Microsoft, especially in the area of security. As of the end of November, Microsoft had released 112 Security Bulletins in 2015. Yet many of us are absolutely dependent on Microsoft products, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and SharePoint. Even if you do not run on Windows, you still likely use these Office products. Since 2010, Microsoft Office 365 provides Cloud-based software plus services subscriptions to Office products plus storage space in Microsoft’s OneDrive.

While Microsoft does not provide sales figures for its Cloud business, adoption of Office 365 and SharePoint workloads has been rapid, with over 80 million users, and could be Microsoft’s “fastest growing product in history.”

While many customers do not put highly sensitive data into OneDrive, Office 365 is compliant with the ISO/IEC 27001 security standards, the European Union’s Data Protection Directive, the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and the US Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). On the other hand, Microsoft has admitted it will hand over OneDrive data stored on European servers to US authorities under the Patriot Act. So anything stored in OneDrive is vulnerable to access by the US government without notice or recourse.

OneDrive is not compliant with PCI (Payment Card Industry) standards, so it is never appropriate to put personal finance information in OneDrive.

Microsoft Office 365 is also priced like the Cloud: pay-for-use. You pay a set amount for each user each month depending on which options you choose. There are benefits to this payment model:

  • The costs are expense, not capital budget items.
  • The cost of the service directly corresponds to the number of users, making clear correlation between benefit and cost.
  • You have the full support of Microsoft behind these products, including those far-too-frequent security bulletins and patches. For Cloud-based applications, these security updates are completely handled by Microsoft in the background requiring no effort by your IT department or users.

The bottom line is that Microsoft Office 365 provides, in my opinion, the best environment for collaborative from-anywhere access to documents, and provides security that is probably better than what most small and mid-sized businesses provide in their own environment. One important issue is the management and control of your Office 365 environment. It is critical for the security of your data to manage your users as their roles change and especially when they leave your company, whether your data is in the Cloud or in your own data center.

A few weeks ago, I wrote about Metalogix ControlPoint, a way to monitor for suspicious behavior in SharePoint. Tomorrow, Metralogix will announce a new version of Essentials for Office 365 to optimize the migration, management, and security of collaborative data in the Cloud and on-premise. This new release of Essentials for Office 365 provides:

  • Comprehensive backup and data protection for Exchange Online, alongside the existing OneDrive and SharePoint functionality which allows IT to quickly create, manage and restore backups of site collections, lists, libraries, content mailboxes, and individual OneDrives to local or cloud storage.
  • Seamless restoration with zero downtime for business continuity.
  • Management of all user attributes including license, permission and content.
  • Flexibility to migrate to multiple Cloud services.
  • Enhanced Diagnostic Manager, including email alerts on Office 365 service status.

The last word:

You may have noticed that this post came out Monday morning instead of the usual Sunday morning. That is because the new version of Metalogix Essesentials for Office 365 will be announced on Tuesday, 8 December 2015, and information on the release was embargoed until 7 December.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.



Self-driving buses are coming to San Ramon, California. The EZ10 is a driverless bus designed for short hops within a campus-like environment. Each vehicle carries up to ten passengers and has a ramp for wheelchairs and strollers. They are designed to carry you that “last mile” from a public transit stop to your workplace or appointment, and then back to the public transit connection when you are done.

EZ10The EZ10 is an electric vehicle with an eight-hour range that uses GPS to follow pre-programed route, with laser sensors to avoid obstacles and people.

Made by Ligier, the EZ10 is already in use in Finland and France, and soon to be used also in Spain. By the end of 2015, The Netherlands plans to use them on a seven-kilometer route between a major train station and the campus of Wageningen University and Research Center.

Probably one of the best features of the EZ10 is that it is another step in making the general public comfortable around driverless vehicles.

Some of us are old enough to remember the introduction of driverless rail-based public transit and the fear, uncertainty, and doubt that it caused. The first such system was the Victoria line as part of London’s Underground which opened in 1967. At this point, trains like Copenhagen’s Metro are capable of operating completely automatically, including door closing, obstacle detection and handling emergency situations. Copenhagen’s Metro carries about 55 million passenger trips per year.

Ligier Automobiles was founded in 1968 by Guy Ligier, a former racing driver and rugby player. It has specialized in small cars (microcars). One of the world’s first prototypes of automatic parallel parking was developed on a Ligier electric car in the mid 1990’s. As the name implies, microcars are small, seating only a driver and passenger, with a small gasoline engine or electric motor. Different countries have different rules on what is defined to be a microcar, but often they can be no more than 3 meters in length. In addition to the obvious fuel efficiency of such a light vehicle, in some countries they are treated like motorcycles for tax and insurance purposes. Austria, France, Germany, Italy and Spain do not require a driver’s license to operate them. Some microcars do not have a reverse; simply pick up one end and shift it around to park.

The last word:

KirobiMiniIf you would like to take a small step into driving automation on your own, consider getting a Kirobo Mini. Designed by Toyota, the cup-holder sized Kirobo Mini is a four-inch tall robot that can gesture, read your mood, and talk to you while you drive. Actually, you can’t get one just yet, but Toyota may install them in future Toyota vehicles to help keep you alert and calm. It could also collect information about driving habits that Toyota engineers could potentially use to build better features into their cars.

The original Kirobo was a slightly more than foot-tall robot that went to space in 2013 with Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata. Kirobo was designed to remember Wakata’s face so it could recognize and have conversations with the astronaut on the International Space Station and even relay information to him from Earth.

The Kirobo Mini might even be useful to help us keep alert during those interminable virtual meetings we all have to sit through.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.


If your IT security folk tell you they need to strengthen your network perimeter, they are probably right. If they tell you that is all they need to do, they are probably wrong. Far too many companies are being hacked because someone stole valid credentials from an employee or a partner’s employee. As I mentioned earlier, in 2011 Lockheed Martin suffered a serious data breach of confidential defense and proprietary information because Chinese government hackers were able to steal credentials from an employee of a partner’s parent company.

Your own employees and contractors are also a security risk. After all, you have given many of them access to your sensitive information, including information protected by laws and regulations. As you move more to the Cloud and BYOD (bring your own devices), you have wittingly or unwittingly opened your network to devices and locations you cannot monitor nor control. Either by intent (e.g., Edward Snowden) or by accident, these employees or contracts could suddenly expose your information.

You can’t tell whether the credentials are used by the person you gave them to, or are being used by someone who has stolen them. In any case, if they are doing something strange, you better find out about it quickly.

The bottom line: securing content with access controls alone is not sufficient in the current threat environment.

Microsoft SharePoint is a web application platform in the Microsoft Office suite that combines content management, document management, business intelligence, workflow management and an enterprise application store across local, wide-area, and Internet-based networks. SharePoint is used by many mid-sized companies and large departments within larger companies. As of 2013, 80% of Fortune 500 companies use it, and Microsoft was adding 20,000 users every day.

If you use SharePoint either in the Cloud or just within your own datacenter, you should look at Metalogix ControlPoint. Announced on November 2, 2015, ControlPoint 7.0 adds real-time situational awareness into suspicious SharePoint user activity. ControlPoint 7.0 introduces a learning detection engine that analyzes user behavior for suspicious activity, and automatically takes action when it finds suspicious activity patterns.

Consider an employee who works primarily from the office and sometimes from home largely during normal business hours, and who looks at about a dozen sensitive documents on an average day. You might like to know if it appears like that employee is downloading hundreds of documents at 2:30 in the morning from what looks like a Chinese IP address. Actually, any of the attributes of that access are suspicious. This is the kind of activity that ControlPoint 7.0 is looking for.

ControlPoint 7.0 features and benefits:

  • Mitigates the risk of data loss due to unauthorized access to content, whether by an employee, contractor, or through the use of stolen credentials.
  • Provides audit trails of content access.
  • Provides details of content growth and user activity.
  • Provide automation of governance policies.
  • Minimizes security breaches.
  • Meets compliance requirements for access control.
  • Anticipates future IT needs for growth.
  • Eliminates human error with policy driven security across SharePoint farms.

Right out of the box, ControlPoint 7.0 will provide significant security benefits. It will take it probably two or three months to learn the behavior of your users; the sooner you start the lower your risk.

Metalogix is a Washington DC-based software company founded in 2001. Metalogix provides a unified platform to manage the entire lifecycle of SharePoint users and their collaboration content centered around optimization, security and management. In 2013, it acquired Axceler’s SharePoint business including ControlPoint for SharePoint. MetaLogix continues to put significant resources into enhancing and supporting ControlPoint; ControlPoint 7.0 follows the release of 6.0 just seven months earlier.

The last word:

The Cloud has moved on to the hybrid cloud. Get the latest insights on how to use it from top leaders (like me) in the industry.

Comments solicited.

Keep your sense of humor.



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