Archive for the ‘Data Security’ Category

If you want the full financial and operational value of Cloud Computing, then you want to use a public cloud. The advantages over private clouds include:

  • Low upfront costs.
  • Clear relationship between cost and benefit with pay-for-use model.
  • Easy to try new projects, easy to make change.
  • Flexible.
  • A wide choice of Service Level Agreement choices (SLAs).
  • Easy to provide a world-wide presence.

Of course, there are some public cloud disadvantages, the most critical being security, performance and availability. At this point in time, you can easily meet most performance and availability requirements from a variety of CSPs; security is more difficult. In a public cloud environment, you do not control physical access, and you have no control over who is sharing common infrastructure including networks, server hardware, and storage systems. But there is a way to secure your data both between your facility and your public cloud CSP and within the CSP’s infrastructure: combine Unisys Stealth with Amazon Web Services (AWS).

The basic principle behind Stealth is to only allow a device to communicate with another device if they share a Community of Interest, a COI.  A COI is nothing more than a group of people and servers.  Data can be shared freely within a COI, but must not be shared with any person or server not in the COI.  In the usual Stealth installation, a user’s COI or set of COIs is specified in the site’s identity management system, the system that is used to authenticate a user when the user signs on.

If you are responsible for protecting your company’s proprietary information, your customers’ private information, or concerned with compliance you should at least look at Unisys Stealth. If you are responsible for a government database involving individuals’ information or classified data, you should also be looking at Unisys Stealth.

I have talked about Unisys Stealth before, Amazon Secure Storage Service (Amazon S3), and the combination in “Secure Public Cloud” back in 2013. What has changed are some significant “under the covers” enhancements to Unisys Stealth, the incorporation of Stealth into the AWS Marketplace, and additional operational facilities to enable you to easily extend your datacenter into the AWS cloud to handle expected, or unexpected, sudden increases in resource demand.

The combination protects communication between your AWS virtual servers even within the same physical server, encrypts all communication among the servers in your data center and the servers in the AWS cloud, and controls access based on roles. You control the security access policies that define who and what can communicate, allowing you to isolate applications within your environment for business or compliance reasons.

Stealth subscriptions are sold through the AWS Marketplace; you get one bill from Amazon for everything including Stealth. It is available in every AWS region. Suddenly you can open a presence anywhere quickly and inexpensively, and react to unexpected growth from anywhere.

One of the most important characteristics of Unisys Stealth and AWS is that there is no back door. Unisys, Amazon, and any network component between do not have your encryption keys. Your government cannot force Unisys or Amazon to provide access to your data; they do not have a way to break in. Even if you are OK with your government gaining access to your information at any time without providing notice to you, you should be very concerned. If your government can get in, then so can any other government, cybercriminal or cyberterrorist by using the same back door for access. Another important benefit of Stealth is that even if a cybercriminal as able to insert malware on one of your servers in the AWS cloud, that server would not be able to transmit anything back to the cybercriminals because Stealth will prevent your server from communicating to any device that is not part of a community of interest that you have defined.

The last word:

Unisys has been around since 1886, and is one of the few survivors of the initial computer revolution designing and building commercial and government computers since the 1940s, computer systems that continue to perform “bet the business” functions. Support is a key element of that environment, and no matter how big or small your company is, you still get that enterprise level support from Unisys. Sure, Unisys has the on-line self-help site with all of the technical documentation and discussion you might want, but you can always pick up the phone and talk to a real person who is knowledgeable on the product, and is probably located within one or two time zones of you.

Curious? Check it out with a Unisys AWS test drive.

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ransomwareRansomware is like the elementary school bully who steals your lunch and won’t give it back until you give him a quarter. Except in this case, it is all or most of the files on your computer’s hard drive, and the cost to restore your data is hundreds of dollars.

The first known ransomware attack was back in 1989. Widespread ransomware attacks started in Russia in 2005. By 2012 the attacks had spread outside of Russia, especially to Europe and North America. They work by either encrypting your files or locking access to your system via a variety means, from constantly putting pornographic pictures over everything on your screen to running a fake version of Windows that won’t do anything until you pay.

There are ransomware attacks for Windows, Mac OS, iOS, and Android systems.

Payment is almost always through some form of electronic currency like Bitcoin. These virtual monetary systems are anonymous and it is very difficult for authorities to track the destination of the payments. However, some ransom notes have you call a “toll-free” number to get a key to release your files or system, except the phone number is routed through a country with very high long-distance rates, and the operator “needs” to put you on hold for several minutes before giving you the code. You could end up with a several hundred dollar item on your next phone bill.

Sometimes the pop-up on your screen looks like it came from a law enforcement agency like the FBI in the US, Scotland Yard in the UK, or your local police agency. The notification page claims the agency locked your computer because they detected illegal files on your computer: usually porn or terrorism-related material. Once you get over the official looking notification with all the correct logos and badges and can read it calmly, it looks like a scam. Often the wording is awkward, and, really, is the FBI going to ignore your alleged terrorism-related activities if you Bitcoin them a few hundred dollars?

By the end of 2013, Security expert Symantec reported 600,000 ransomware attacks a month, and expects these attacks to increase substantially in 2016 across all platforms.

If you get a ransomware notification on your business or personal computer, tablet or smart phone, do not pay the ransom. They may give you the key, or they may not. These are cybercriminals, not necessarily known for their ethics. Once the malware is loaded, they can bully you again as often as they want until you clean it off of your system. Have a five-minute rant, calm down, reload a fresh copy of the OS and then restore your files from your latest backup.

The solution, of course, is not to be attacked by ransomware. While you can never be completely protected, here are four things that you should already be doing.

  1. Practice safe clicking. Always check the link in an email or on a website that you are not positive is friendly. Check out my last post for how to do that. Most ransomware comes in through a standard malware attack.
  2. Keep your software up-to-date. Cybercriminals and cyberterrorists are always looking for new vulnerabilities, and they are very good at it. Once they find one, they pass the information on to other cyber attackers. Fortunately, the good guys are also looking for vulnerabilities and making updates to their software to close vulnerabilities as they find them. But if you do not have the latest software, you still have those vulnerabilites.
  3. Use a good security software package that is more than just anti-virus.
  4. Often. No, even more often than that. Periodically, ask yourself when you or your automated backup mechanism made your last backup. Then ask how much grief it would be to redo everything you had done since then. Macintosh Time Machine and Windows 10 File History backup changed files every hour, but only if you have an external hard drive and the option turned on.

In one recent example, Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center paid cyber-terrorists 40 bitcoins (about $17,000) to get the key to release the hospital’s data. I call this a cyber-terrorist attack because it put every patient in the hospital at risk of death or serious injury when doctors and nurses can no longer access the patients records or get access to diagnostic information from monitoring or diagnostic equipment. Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center is a private hospital in Los Angeles with 434 beds. The hospital CEO, Allen Stefanek, said the paying the terrorists was the “quickest and most efficient way” to regain control of their data systems. The malware attack was first noticed on February 5, and was fully functioning until 10 days later. Clearly, this hospital IT department was not prepared for any kind of a disaster. I expect they will be attacked again, probably by the same terrorists.

The FBI is investigating, but I would not expect them to catch anybody.

The last word:

Packages like Time Machine and File History are great for automatically backing up in the background while you are working, and in general meaning you never have more than one hour’s worth of work to recover. They also make recovery easy, and can give you the file as it was yesterday or last week in case you really messed it up and do throw away the last change effort.

However, they are not very effective in two cases:

  1. If you have a building failure, they are likely to also get destroyed. A building failure is a case where you cannot get back into the building, perhaps because of a fire, earthquake, biological contamination, police or military action, or terrorist act.
  2. Some ransomware not only makes the files on your computer’s hard drive inaccessible, but will also destroy or encrypt the files on any attached hard drives, like your Time Machine or File History drive.

If you are paranoid, like me, you should also have an offsite backup. It is now fairly easy and inexpensive to do this with packages like Microsoft OneDrive, Apple iCloud, Carbonite, and a host of others.

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linkIn my last post I urged you to be careful when you click on a link in an email, in a blog or on a website. If there is anything strange or unusual about the website, blog post, or email, then either simply say “no” and move on, or carefully inspect the link. In case you are not sure of the danger I am worried about, I am repeating part of an earlier post.

I received an email indicating we had added a new payer to our E-Z Financial bank account. (Yep, it had a real bank name you would recognize, but that bank had nothing to do with this so I won’t mention it and use “E-Z Financial” instead.) The payer name was clearly a name we did not recognize, and it requested we click on a link if we had not done this. My wife was suspicious for several reasons, primarily because she didn’t know we had an E-Z Financial bank account.

A quick inspection of the email seemed to say this was a real email from E-Z Financial; the link back started out as http://online.EZFinancial.com, which certainly looks valid. We do not have an account with them. But that was not what triggered my concern, since someone could have opened an E-Z Financial account in my name, probably not to give me money. I went to the bank’s web site and sure enough on their security alert page was an example of this email. What was wrong with the link was a period instead of a forward slash after the EZFinancial.com. The link was actually


Please do not try this link in your browser. I have modified it some, but possibly not enough to make the scam fail.

URL, the “easy to read” address of a web site or page, can be quite long and complex, but is actually fairly simple to take apart. For example, if you go to Amazon’s web site and click on “Today’s Deals” you end up at


Scan after any leading “http://” to the first forward slash “/”. Then scan back past the previous period and then back to the beginning or next period to get the domain name. In this case the domain name is “amazon.com.” That is the web site. Everything after that first slash just means a particular page perhaps with parameters on the web site (“gp/goldbox” is a particular page on amazon.com, and “ref=cs_top_nav_gb27” is a parameter passed to that page).


On the scam link, the domain name is not “EZFinancial.com” but “is-an-account.com”. The stuff before that is called a subdomain, but is owned by “is-an-account.com,” not “EZFinancial.com.”   I tend to be suspicious of strange domain names.


When you go to a web page, it is a good thing to look up in the URL window at the top of your browser and see where it really is. Some browsers, like FireFox, actually highlight the domain name for you just for this reason. If it isn’t what you think it should be, close the browser window, make sure your virus check software is up to date and do a full scan of your system.

The last word:

Always practice safe clicking.

Pass the word to your children and your employees.

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VoteIn addition to being a huge source of interest, amusement, annoying commercials, robo-calls, and anguish to all of us in the US, the 2016 election cycle is likely to drive cybercriminal and hacktivist activity. The Forcepoint 2016 Cybersecurity Predictions Report describes some interesting possibilities.

As an individual, expect to be targeted. By the 2012 election cycle, social media was an important method of getting a candidate’s message out, gauging voter interest, collecting donations, and promoting engagement hopefully leading to a vote. For some candidates, social media is at least as important as the traditional new media. Attackers will use the intense interest in this election cycle to create highly effective email lures and misdirects to push malware to the unsuspecting public.

Some of these attacks will be advanced cyber attacks against specific organizations unrelated to the election, potentially including your company. The cybercriminals will target individuals pursuing election-related information, with the expectation that the cybercriminals can gain access to personal or company information for financial gain or negative business impact unrelated to the election.

The candidates themselves, as well as the news media, will become vulnerable to attacks on their social media sites. These attacks may be by opponents, foreign governments, or hacktivists with a specific political agenda. Expect to see these attacks used to spread inaccurate messages and information. Even if a candidate can quickly correct the information, the false information lives forever and may impact the outcome of an election. In the US political circus, the message is critical.

These attacks on a candidate’s social media could also impact the data the candidate is collecting on probable voters and donations. Corrupting that data could have a huge negative impact on a candidate’s ability to run or fund a campaign.

InfoSec Institute published “Which Top 5 Presidential Candidate is Most Likely to Be Hacked?” back in October, 2015. The only candidate with an “A” rating was Ben Carson (remember him?), largely because he outsources donation and volunteer services and does not have an on-line store; he has a very small attack server. Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump got a “B,” Bernie Sanders and Jeb Bush got a “C.” Several of these candidates are using unsecured or only partially secured WordPress sites that may leak internal usernames and other information, making them relatively easy targets. While she did get a “B,” Hillary has the largest attack surface based on a quickly built custom application. Her development team’s motto is “ship early and often; done is always better than perfect.” Security may not be high on the team’s priority list, and security testing is likely to be a low priority task.

As the Forcepoint report points out, “Technology decisions made by candidates during their tenure can expose them to data theft attacks (as seen by Clinton’s use of a private email server).” It is also likely true that technology decision made during a campaign may give a hint as to how that candidate will behave relative to data security when elected. If you see a candidate reacting to incorrect information on their web site or social media, then expect that their concern about data security is very low. Put that on your scorecard as one factor as you decide how you will vote.

It will not be just the candidates’ web sites and social media sites, but also those of the hundreds of issue-related websites that represent PACs and other special interest groups.

The bottom line is that you need to be very careful. Before you click on a link in an email or on a website, carefully look at it. Even if you know the sender of an email, if all it says is something like “check this out” or some other short message, be careful: the email may only appear to be from a friend or co-worker. The safest way is to copy the link (right-click on the link and select “Copy Link Location”) and then paste that into your browser’s URL line and make sure you recognize the web site.

The last word:

SEAIf you think it unlikely that a foreign government would attack a candidate, consider the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), a group of attackers supporting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Beginning in 2011, the SEA targeted political opposition groups within Syria, western news organizations (including the BBC, Associated Press, and The Washington Post) and human rights groups. The SEA has managed to send false tweets from Twitter accounts for 60 Minutes, Reuters, Associated Press, ITV News London, and many others. It has defaced the web sites of Forbes, NBC, CBC News, and hundreds of other sites including the National Hockey League.

Of course, the SEA is only one potential government sponsored hacktivist organization, and in my view, not the most dangerous by far. There is a reason why the US and China agreed to a pact to not use cyberattacks to steal company records for financial gain. Of course, China does not admit to ever having done anything like that. A careful reading of the pact indicates that the pact does not bar cyberattacks for other reasons such as political.

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Cash is a pain. If you are a retailer, you have to go to the bank and get change every business day, count the cash drawer at every teller change and at the end of the day, and secure the cash until you get it back to the bank. In the meantime, you have to be concerned about it being stolen, or accepting counterfeit bills. After all, if you accept a counterfeit bill, you have lost that money.

Paper money does need to be laundered: it is filthy. A 2002 report found pathogens on 94% of the dollar bills tested, and paper money can and will transfer disease from a previous handler to you. Paper money can transport a live flu virus for two weeks, and one report found that a majority of US bills are contaminated by cocaine, directly from the coke-covered hands of drug makers and traffickers, and further distributed by the rollers in ATMs. Restaurants should have signs saying “employees must wash hands after handling cash,” and it is a good rule for everyone.

If you are a government, you like cash even less. You have to design money that is hard to counterfeit, securely manufacture it, distribute it to the Federal Reserve banks and branches (in the US), and they have to release them to the commercial banking system. This is all very expensive. Then you have to have a large infrastructure to investigate and prevent counterfeiting; in the US that is the Secret Service. Just the process of deciding how much money to print is an expensive effort. Worse, cash is untraceable. The government does not know how much is really still in circulation, and can only monitor transactions that are done through a commercial bank, and currently the US only monitors transactions of $10,000 or more.

As an aside, the day that President Abraham Lincoln established the Secret Service, July 5, 1865, was the day that he was assassinated. Congress immediately began to think about adding Presidential Protection to the list of Secret Service duties, and after only two more Presidents were assassinated (Garfield in 1881 and McKinley in 1901) Congress did actually add that protection.

Think how much easier it would be to handle sales and income taxes if all transactions went through financial institutions. The taxes could be automatically taken at the time of the transaction. Tax filing would be a breeze; in fact you really would not need to file anything. The government would send you a summary of all of your contributions to its good works. A federal, state or local taxing authority could change tax rates at any time and have them take effect immediately. Tax evasion becomes much more difficult. Countries like Greece and Italy with huge tax evasion problems might consider this approach. Governments will like these improvements in their cash flow.

Sweden is moving quickly to a cash-free future. More than half of the branches of the country’s leading banks no longer accept or dispense cash. Banks are dismantling ATM’s by the hundreds.

While largely a bottom up phenomenon in this very tech-savvy country, the government is not at all trying to stem the trend or even slow it down. Nonetheless, the Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) predicts that some cash will still be circulating in 20 years. Cash now represents just 2% of Sweden’s economy, compared with almost 8% in the US and 10% in the Euro Zone. The amount of cash in Sweden’s bank vaults dropped from 8.7 billion kronor in 2010 to 3.6 billion kronor in 2014, a decline of over 60%.

KollektomatEven street beggars accept credit cards or SMS donations in Sweden. At a Filadelfia Stockholm church service, worshipers use cellphones to tithe through a Swedish bank app called Swish to a bank account projected on a huge screen, or line up at a Kollektomat card machine in the church. Last year, only 15% of their donations came in cash.

All of this only works with the Cloud, with all of the “works from anywhere at anytime” benefits and potential security issues.

However, there may be some bad side effects to this cashless society.

  • Older adults or others who are not tech savvy may be at a disadvantage, finding it difficult to ride public transportation or even buy newspapers or food.
  • When you can’t see the cash flowing out of your pocket, it is much easier to fall into a debt hole. It is a lot harder, I think, to pull a $100 bill out of your pocket then swipe a little piece of plastic or click a box on your smart phone.
  • Of course, the cybercriminals are paying attention. The number of financial cybercrime cases has more than doubled in the last ten years in Sweden.

But the biggest social change that will accompany the cash-less world will be in the rise of other forms of anonymous and non-traceable tradable items. Bitcoin is one such decentralized virtual currency, and identified as such by the US Treasury Department. Like most currencies, the value of a bitcoin can vary, but its value is not under the control of any government. Unlike regulated transactions, bitcoin transactions are not protected by any laws.

Some of the earliest adopters of bitcoin were criminals who found it a convenient and “safe” online marketplace for contraband. Allegedly ISIS is using bitcoin to help fund its activities.

The next step will be the expansion of “smart contracts.” A smart contract uses software to monitor and manage a contract, replacing third-party humans like lawyers, and allowing two parties that may not trust each other to have a contract that will “pay off” when and if something happens. This could be something as common as the transfer of real property, or criminal acts including cybercriminal activity or even physical acts including murder. Usually based around bitcoin, payment is anonymous and untraceable.

Criminals and law-abiding citizens will find ways to get around what they perceive as an overpowering or overly intrusive government.

The last word:

I wish you all a happy, peaceful and prosperous 2016. Remember that the world is fair; it just does not care about you.

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I am not a fan of Microsoft, especially in the area of security. As of the end of November, Microsoft had released 112 Security Bulletins in 2015. Yet many of us are absolutely dependent on Microsoft products, including Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook, and SharePoint. Even if you do not run on Windows, you still likely use these Office products. Since 2010, Microsoft Office 365 provides Cloud-based software plus services subscriptions to Office products plus storage space in Microsoft’s OneDrive.

While Microsoft does not provide sales figures for its Cloud business, adoption of Office 365 and SharePoint workloads has been rapid, with over 80 million users, and could be Microsoft’s “fastest growing product in history.”

While many customers do not put highly sensitive data into OneDrive, Office 365 is compliant with the ISO/IEC 27001 security standards, the European Union’s Data Protection Directive, the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), and the US Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). On the other hand, Microsoft has admitted it will hand over OneDrive data stored on European servers to US authorities under the Patriot Act. So anything stored in OneDrive is vulnerable to access by the US government without notice or recourse.

OneDrive is not compliant with PCI (Payment Card Industry) standards, so it is never appropriate to put personal finance information in OneDrive.

Microsoft Office 365 is also priced like the Cloud: pay-for-use. You pay a set amount for each user each month depending on which options you choose. There are benefits to this payment model:

  • The costs are expense, not capital budget items.
  • The cost of the service directly corresponds to the number of users, making clear correlation between benefit and cost.
  • You have the full support of Microsoft behind these products, including those far-too-frequent security bulletins and patches. For Cloud-based applications, these security updates are completely handled by Microsoft in the background requiring no effort by your IT department or users.

The bottom line is that Microsoft Office 365 provides, in my opinion, the best environment for collaborative from-anywhere access to documents, and provides security that is probably better than what most small and mid-sized businesses provide in their own environment. One important issue is the management and control of your Office 365 environment. It is critical for the security of your data to manage your users as their roles change and especially when they leave your company, whether your data is in the Cloud or in your own data center.

A few weeks ago, I wrote about Metalogix ControlPoint, a way to monitor for suspicious behavior in SharePoint. Tomorrow, Metralogix will announce a new version of Essentials for Office 365 to optimize the migration, management, and security of collaborative data in the Cloud and on-premise. This new release of Essentials for Office 365 provides:

  • Comprehensive backup and data protection for Exchange Online, alongside the existing OneDrive and SharePoint functionality which allows IT to quickly create, manage and restore backups of site collections, lists, libraries, content mailboxes, and individual OneDrives to local or cloud storage.
  • Seamless restoration with zero downtime for business continuity.
  • Management of all user attributes including license, permission and content.
  • Flexibility to migrate to multiple Cloud services.
  • Enhanced Diagnostic Manager, including email alerts on Office 365 service status.

The last word:

You may have noticed that this post came out Monday morning instead of the usual Sunday morning. That is because the new version of Metalogix Essesentials for Office 365 will be announced on Tuesday, 8 December 2015, and information on the release was embargoed until 7 December.

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If your IT security folk tell you they need to strengthen your network perimeter, they are probably right. If they tell you that is all they need to do, they are probably wrong. Far too many companies are being hacked because someone stole valid credentials from an employee or a partner’s employee. As I mentioned earlier, in 2011 Lockheed Martin suffered a serious data breach of confidential defense and proprietary information because Chinese government hackers were able to steal credentials from an employee of a partner’s parent company.

Your own employees and contractors are also a security risk. After all, you have given many of them access to your sensitive information, including information protected by laws and regulations. As you move more to the Cloud and BYOD (bring your own devices), you have wittingly or unwittingly opened your network to devices and locations you cannot monitor nor control. Either by intent (e.g., Edward Snowden) or by accident, these employees or contracts could suddenly expose your information.

You can’t tell whether the credentials are used by the person you gave them to, or are being used by someone who has stolen them. In any case, if they are doing something strange, you better find out about it quickly.

The bottom line: securing content with access controls alone is not sufficient in the current threat environment.

Microsoft SharePoint is a web application platform in the Microsoft Office suite that combines content management, document management, business intelligence, workflow management and an enterprise application store across local, wide-area, and Internet-based networks. SharePoint is used by many mid-sized companies and large departments within larger companies. As of 2013, 80% of Fortune 500 companies use it, and Microsoft was adding 20,000 users every day.

If you use SharePoint either in the Cloud or just within your own datacenter, you should look at Metalogix ControlPoint. Announced on November 2, 2015, ControlPoint 7.0 adds real-time situational awareness into suspicious SharePoint user activity. ControlPoint 7.0 introduces a learning detection engine that analyzes user behavior for suspicious activity, and automatically takes action when it finds suspicious activity patterns.

Consider an employee who works primarily from the office and sometimes from home largely during normal business hours, and who looks at about a dozen sensitive documents on an average day. You might like to know if it appears like that employee is downloading hundreds of documents at 2:30 in the morning from what looks like a Chinese IP address. Actually, any of the attributes of that access are suspicious. This is the kind of activity that ControlPoint 7.0 is looking for.

ControlPoint 7.0 features and benefits:

  • Mitigates the risk of data loss due to unauthorized access to content, whether by an employee, contractor, or through the use of stolen credentials.
  • Provides audit trails of content access.
  • Provides details of content growth and user activity.
  • Provide automation of governance policies.
  • Minimizes security breaches.
  • Meets compliance requirements for access control.
  • Anticipates future IT needs for growth.
  • Eliminates human error with policy driven security across SharePoint farms.

Right out of the box, ControlPoint 7.0 will provide significant security benefits. It will take it probably two or three months to learn the behavior of your users; the sooner you start the lower your risk.

Metalogix is a Washington DC-based software company founded in 2001. Metalogix provides a unified platform to manage the entire lifecycle of SharePoint users and their collaboration content centered around optimization, security and management. In 2013, it acquired Axceler’s SharePoint business including ControlPoint for SharePoint. MetaLogix continues to put significant resources into enhancing and supporting ControlPoint; ControlPoint 7.0 follows the release of 6.0 just seven months earlier.

The last word:

The Cloud has moved on to the hybrid cloud. Get the latest insights on how to use it from top leaders (like me) in the industry.

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